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Obstructive sleep apnea - adults

Definition

Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) is a problem in which your breathing pauses during sleep. This occurs because of narrowed or blocked airways.

Alternative Names

Sleep apnea - obstructive - adults; Apnea - obstructive sleep apnea syndrome - adults; Sleep-disordered breathing - adults; OSA - adults

Causes

When you sleep, all of the muscles in your body become more relaxed. This includes the muscles that help keep your throat open so air can flow into your lungs.

Normally, your throat remains open enough during sleep to let air pass by. Some people have a narrow throat. When the muscles in their upper throat relax during sleep, the tissues close in and block the airway. This stop in breathing is called apnea.

Loud snoring is a telltale symptom of OSA. Snoring is caused by air squeezing through the narrowed or blocked airway. Not everyone who snores has sleep apnea though.

Other factors also may increase your risk:

Sleeping on your back can also cause your airway to become blocked or narrowed.

Central sleep apnea is another sleep disorder during which breathing can stop. It occurs when the brain temporarily stops sending signals to the muscles that control breathing.

Symptoms

If you have OSA, you usually begin snoring heavily soon after falling asleep.

Most people with OSA do not know their breathing starts and stops during the night. Usually, a sleep partner or other family members hear the loud snoring, gasping, and snorting. Snoring can be loud enough to hear through walls.

People with sleep apnea may:

Other problems that may occur include:

Exams and Tests

Your health care provider will take your medical history and do a physical exam.

You will need to have a sleep study to confirm OSA.

Other tests that may be performed include:

Treatment

Treatment helps keep your airway open while you sleep so your breathing does not stop.

Lifestyle changes may help relieve symptoms in people with mild sleep apnea, such as:

Continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) devices work best to treat obstructive sleep apnea in most people.

It can take some time to get used to sleeping with CPAP therapy. Good follow-up and support from a sleep center can help you overcome any problems using CPAP.

Dental devices may help some people. You wear them in your mouth while you sleep to keep your jaw forward and the airway open.

Other treatments may be available, but there is less evidence that they work. It is best to talk with a doctor who specializes in sleep problems before trying them.

Surgery may be an option for some people. It is often a last resort if other treatments did not work and you have severe symptoms. Surgery may be used to:

Surgery may not completely cure obstructive sleep apnea and may have long-term side effects.

Outlook (Prognosis)

If not treated, sleep apnea may cause:

Daytime sleepiness because of sleep apnea can increase the risk of:

In most cases, treatment completely relieves symptoms and problems from sleep apnea.

Possible Complications

Untreated obstructive sleep apnea may lead to or worsen heart disease, including:

When to Contact a Medical Professional

Call your provider if:

References

Basner RC. Obstructive sleep apnea. In: Goldman L, Schafer AI, eds. Goldman's Cecil Medicine. 25th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier Saunders; 2016:chap 100.

Kimoff RJ. Obstructive sleep apnea. In: Broaddus VC, Mason RJ, Ernst JD, et al, eds. Murray and Nadel's Textbook of Respiratory Medicine. 6th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier Saunders; 2016:chap 88.

Qaseem A, Holty JE, Owens DK, Dallas P, Starkey M, Shekelle P; for the Clinical Guidelines Committee of the American College of Physicians. Management of obstructive sleep apnea in adults: a clinical practice guideline from the American College of Physicians. Ann Intern Med. 2013;159(7):471-483. PMID: 24061345 www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24061345.

Somers VK. Sleep apnea and cardiovascular disease. In: Mann DL, Zipes DP, Libby P, Bonow RO, Braunwald E, eds. Braunwald's Heart Disease: A Textbook of Cardiovascular Medicine. 10th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier Saunders; 2015:chap 75.

Wakefield TL, Lam DJ, Ishman SL. Sleep apnea and sleep disorders. In: Flint PW, Haughey BH, Lund VJ, et al, eds. Cummings Otolaryngology: Head & Neck Surgery. 6th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier Saunders; 2015:chap 18.


Review Date: 1/27/2016
Reviewed By: Allen J. Blaivas, DO, Division of Pulmonary, Critical Care, and Sleep Medicine, VA New Jersey Health Care System, Clinical Assistant Professor, Rutger's New Jersey Medical School, East Orange, NJ. Review provided by VeriMed Healthcare Network. Also reviewed by David Zieve, MD, MHA, Isla Ogilvie, PhD, and the A.D.A.M. Editorial team.
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