Indigestion (dyspepsia) is a mild discomfort in the upper belly or abdomen. It occurs during or right after eating. It may feel like:
- Heat, burning, or pain in the area between the navel and the lower part of the breastbone
- Unpleasant fullness that comes on soon after a meal begins or when the meal is over
Bloating and nausea are less common symptoms.
Indigestion is NOT the same as heartburn.
Dyspepsia; Uncomfortable fullness after meals
Most of the time indigestion is not a sign of a serious health problem unless it occurs with other symptoms. These may include:
- Weight loss
- Trouble swallowing.
Rarely, the discomfort of a heart attack is mistaken for indigestion.
Indigestion may be triggered by:
- Drinking too much alcohol
- Eating spicy, fatty, or greasy foods
- Eating too much (overeating)
- Eating too fast
- Stress or being nervous
- Eating high-fiber foods
- Smoking tobacco
- Drinking too much caffeine
Other causes of indigestion are:
- Gastritis (when the lining of the stomach becomes inflamed or swollen)
- Swelling of the pancreas (pancreatitis)
- Ulcers (stomach or intestinal ulcer)
- Use of certain medicines such as antibiotics, aspirin, and over-the-counter pain medicines (NSAIDs)
Changing the way you eat may help your symptoms. Steps you can take include:
- Allow enough time for meals.
- Chew food carefully and completely.
- Avoid arguments during meals.
- Avoid excitement or exercise right after a meal.
- Relax and get rest if indigestion is caused by stress.
Avoid aspirin and other NSAIDs. If you must take them, do so on a full stomach.
Antacids may relieve indigestion.
Medicines you can buy without a prescription, such as ranitidine (Zantac) and omeprazole (Prilosec OTC) can relieve symptoms. Your health care provider may also prescribe these medicines in higher doses or for longer periods of time.
When to Contact a Medical Professional
Get medical help right away if your symptoms include jaw pain, chest pain, back pain, heavy sweating, anxiety, or a feeling of impending doom. These are possible heart attack symptoms.
Call your health care provider if:
- Your indigestion symptoms change noticeably.
- Your symptoms last longer than a few days.
- You have unexplained weight loss.
- You have sudden, severe abdominal pain.
- You have trouble swallowing.
- You have yellow coloring of the skin and eyes (jaundice).
- You vomit blood or pass blood in the stool.
What to Expect at Your Office Visit
Your provider will do a physical exam on the stomach area and digestive tract. You will be asked questions about your symptoms.
You may have some tests, including:
- Ultrasound test of the abdomen
- Blood tests
- Upper endoscopy
Mayer EA. Functional gastrointestinal disorders: irritable bowel syndrome, dyspepsia, and functional chest pain of presumed esophageal origin. In: Goldman L, Schafer Al, eds. Goldman's Cecil Medicine. 24th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier Saunders; 2011:chap 139.
Todd Eisner, MD, private practice specializing in gastroenterology, and Affiliate Assistant Professor, Florida Atlantic University School of Medicine, Boca Raton, FL. Review provided by VeriMed Healthcare Network. Also reviewed by David Zieve, MD, MHA, Isla Ogilvie, PhD, and the A.D.A.M. Editorial team.
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